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Within a year of Mohammed's death, his successors held Arabia securely enough to invade Persia and the Byzantine Empire. The defeat of the Byzantines at Damascus in 635 allowed Mesopotamia, which had long been ethnically Arab, to be invaded. In 637 the Arabs took Ctesiphon, and in 641-42 they defeated the Sasanians at Nihavand, after which Persia fell to the invaders. The Persian people had little to lose by cooperating, though resistance lasted until 650. Conversion to Islam was rapid among the urban population but slower among the peasantry, most of whom did not convert until the ninth century. The Arabs adopted  Sasanian coin types [which survived in modified form for two hundred years] and administrative practices. The Islamic conquest was a long chaotic process, marked by power struggles that climaxed when Caliph Ali was murdered in 661. ShaitanT.gif (38590 bytes)
Tavus al-Malaik
The Omayyad Caliphate then took power in Damascus, and its struggle with the followers of Ali ultimately led to the Sunni-Shia schism. Rebellions threw Persia into chaos, while Tabaristan remained under control of  nominally tributary warlords. One result of this civil war was the emergence of the Yazidiya shaitanparastan (devil-worshippers). Yazid rebelled against the Caliphate. His followers venerate Tavus al-Malaik, greatest of the angels, who rebelled against God but will be forgiven after seven thousand years in Hell, when his tears fill seven jars. The Yazidiya view derogatory references to Satan as blasphemy. They controlled much of Persia during the civil wars, issuing coins that may be distinguished from regular issues by cabalistic symbols and variations in the legends, and their sect endures today among the Kurds.
Late Sasanian

The Advent of Islam
650 ad - 820 ad

Eastern Frontier

Viceroy of Kufa Khorasan Viceroy of Basra Fars, Kirman and Seistan The Yazidiya Tabaristan

W ANS8 2674 Arab-Sasanian, Abdallah Ibn Al-Zubair: AR 30 Drachm
AH 65
Obv. Sasanid bust in style of Khusru II r.
Rev. Fire-altar w. attendants
DA AH 65
4.13 g
Walker p. 35, ANS.8 PL V.10 EF, well struck

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