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Accolate Refers to a design with two heads overlapping.
Adjustment marks Marks caused by filing a flan before striking to reduce its weight to the standard
AE Abbreviation for bronze or brass
Aegina or Aigina Greek city-state on an island near Athens
Aegis Mythological shield; a short cloak consisting of a goatskin with a border of snakes and with the head of Medusa in the center; worn by Athena and Zeus and by Hellenistic and Roman rulers who identified with them.
Aequitas Personification of equity or fairness
Aes Bronze
Aes grave Cast bronze coins of the Roman republic; literally "heavy bronze."
Aeternitas Personification of eternity
Alate Winged
Alloy Mixture of more than one metal.
Amphora A small-mouthed two-handled vase with a pointed bottom; used to carry and store oil and wine.
Amphitheater A structure whose seats form an ellipse or oval around an arena. Used to stage gladiatorial combats and other spectacles.
Ancient Pertaining to the period before the medieval era; usually before 800 ad
Anepigraphic Without a legend
Aqueduct A structure similar to a bridge; for carrying water
AR Abbreviation for silver
Arch A structure featuring a round or elliptical aperture. Frequent component of Roman architecture; often a free-standing commemorative monument.
Arena The open space (lt. "sand") in a stadium or amphitheater. Frequently underlain by subterranean passages and cells for confinement and movement of combatants.
Ares Greek god of war
Argenteus Roman silver coin introduced by the emperor Diocletian to replace the debased denarius.
Armed Wearing armor and bearing weapons
As Bronze unit of the Roman republic. Originally a large cast coin; later a smaller struck coin also issued under the Roman Empire.
Aspron trachy Scyphate Byzantine coin struck in electrum and billon.
Augur Roman priest who practiced divination
Aureus Aureus denarius; Roman gold coin (c. 8 g) worth 25 denarii
Autonomous Bearing the name of the issuing authority; a symbol of sovereignty
AV Abbreviation for gold
Barbaric imitation Coin issued by the tribes outside the area of classical civilization; in imitation of a classical type
Bare Head A portrait showing nothing below the neck; without a wreath or crown .
Bare Headed Bust A portrait including anything below the neck; without a wreath or crown.
Base metal Non-precious metal; e.g. copper.
Basilica Roman colonnaded hall; later a type of church
(Carl Wilhelm)
Well-known forger whose imitations are very deceptive
Biga Two-horse chariot
Billon Alloy of silver and base metals containing less than 50% silver; often silver-washed
Bipennis A double-bladed axe
Bonus Eventus Personification of good fortune; success
Brass Alloy containing chiefly copper and zinc.
Bronze Alloy containing chiefly copper and tin.
Buccina Long Roman trumpet
Bucranium Symbol shaped as the head of an ox
Bust Portrait showing the head and detail below the neck
- Consular Bust Bust depicting the emperor dressed as Consul
Byzantine Pertaining to the Eastern Roman Empire after 498 ad
Cabinet friction Slight surface wear caused by friction between a coin and the tray or envelope in which it is contained.
Caduceus Staff around which two snakes are entwined.
Cantharus Vessel with a high base and projecting handles; associated with Dionysos
Cap of Vulcan A rounded cap; symbol of the god of blacksmithing
- Phrygian cap A conical cap with top turned forward; Liberty cap
Capricorn Mythological creature; half goat and half fish
Carpentum Roman four-wheeled cart
Censor Roman official charged with the census
Centaur Mythological creature; half man and half horse
Cerebrus Three-headed dog of Hades
Ceres (Demeter) Goddess of fertility and agriculture
Chalkos Smallest Greek bronze coin
Chariot Two-wheeled cart drawn by horses
Chimaera Mythological creature; half eagle and half lion
Chlamys Greek mantle
Christogram Superimposed Greek letters "P" and "X;" abbreviation for "Christos"
Cippus Short pillar often used as a boundary marker
Circus Roman stadium designed for chariot racing
Cista mystica Sacred basket containing snakes; used in Dionysiac rites
Cleaned coin Any coin subjected to any cleaning process could be considered cleaned; but this usually refers to a coin cleaned by a chemical or abrasive process removing its natural patina and lowering its numismatic value.
Clementia Personification of clemency or mercy
Clipping Removal of metal from the edge of gold and silver coins
Coin A piece of metal marked with a device; issued by a governing authority and intended to be used as money.
Coliseum Large arena in Rome.
Commemorative Bearing a design commemorating a person or event
Concordia Personification of concord or unity
Condition State of preservation of a coin
Conjoined Refers to two or more superimposed heads or busts
Consul Chief magistrate of the Roman Republic; two consuls were elected each year. The office continued under the Empire with reduced authority.
Contorniate A type of medal or token issued during the late Roman Empire; distinguished by a groove around the rim.
Cornucopia Horn of plenty.
Corona civica Roman civic crown; a wreath made of oak leaves and awarded to citizens who saved the life of another in battle
Counterfeit Imitation of a coin made to circulate as if actually money; also a fraudulent coin made to deceive collectors
Countermark A stamp impressed on a coin and effacing part of the design
Cross potent Cross with a bar at the end of each arm.
Cuirass Armor section or breastplate covering the torso

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